Secondary prevention advices after cardiovascular index event: From drug prescription to risk factors control in real world practice

https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2019.1040

Authors

  • Pompilio Faggiano Cardiology Unit, University and ASST Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy.
  • Francesco Fattirolli Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.
  • Anna Frisinghelli Cardiology Rehabilitation Unit, ASST Rhodense, Milan, Italy.
  • Lucrezia Piccioli Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine Unit, “Federico II” University of Naples, Italy.
  • Nicolò Dasseni Cardiology Unit, University and ASST Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy.
  • Maria Vittoria Silverii Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.
  • Laura Albricci Cardiology Rehabilitation Unit, ASST Rhodense, Milan, Italy.
  • Giuseppe D'Ambrosio Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine Unit, “Federico II” University of Naples, Italy.
  • Rosaria Garrì Cardiology Rehabilitation Unit, ASST Rhodense, Milan, Italy.
  • Luigi Esposito Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine Unit, “Federico II” University of Naples, Italy.
  • Francesco Giallauria | francesco.giallauria@unina.it Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine Unit, “Federico II” University of Naples, Italy.

Abstract

The present study aims at evaluating the achievement of blood pressure, lipid and blood glucose targets, healthy lifestyle changes and appropriate drug prescription/adherence in patients attending secondary prevention/CR ambulatory visit after index cardiovascular event in a time period ranging 1 to 5 year. At ambulatory visit, a predetermined set of data collection was used, including demographic data, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits, type and time of index event, current symptoms, physical sign, biochemistry and current medical treatment (including type and dosage). Cardiovascular risk profile (smoking habits, physical activity and body weight), secondary prevention goals (LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, resting heart rate, glycated haemoglobin level) and the use of recommended drugs were also evaluated and categorized. Study population consisted of 800 patients [644 men (84.5%), aged 69±10.9 years)]. Cardiovascular index events were coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) (20%) ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (28%), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (21%) and stable angina (13%) by unstable angina (13%) and stroke (5%). About 30% of patients was symptomatic (angina or dyspnoea) at the time of ambulatory visit. Major comorbidities were hypertension (73%), dyslipidaemia (64%) and diabetes (40%). More than 80% of patients achieved target levels for blood pressure. Patients that have participated to cardiac rehabilitation programmes after cardiovascular index event showed best achievement in blood pressure target (83.8% vs 76.8%, p=0.02). LDL-cholesterol target (<70 mg/dl) was achieved in about 2/3 of patients; HbA1c target (<7%) was achieved in 56.4% of diabetic population. About 75% of study cohort was treated with RAAS inhibitors, 85% with beta-blockers, 92% with statins and 87% with acetylsalicylic acid. All drugs were increasingly adopted from index event. Implementing secondary prevention guidelines into the ‘real world’ clinical practice in "late" interval from 1 to 5 years after a cardiovascular event improved risk factors control and appropriate drug prescription. Whether these improvements translated into prognostic advantages remains to be elucidated.

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Published
2019-05-20
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Section
Cardiology - Original Articles
Keywords:
secondary prevention, drugs prescription, risk factors
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How to Cite
Faggiano, Pompilio, Francesco Fattirolli, Anna Frisinghelli, Lucrezia Piccioli, Nicolò Dasseni, Maria Vittoria Silverii, Laura Albricci, Giuseppe D’Ambrosio, Rosaria Garrì, Luigi Esposito, and Francesco Giallauria. 2019. “Secondary Prevention Advices After Cardiovascular Index Event: From Drug Prescription to Risk Factors Control in Real World Practice”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 89 (2). https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2019.1040.

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