Clinical-Cytological-Grading and phenotyping in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: the relevance in clinical practice
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) includes two main phenotypes: without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). CRSwNP may be associated with comorbidity, mainly concerning asthma, aspirin intolerance, and allergy. CRSwNP patients may also be evaluated by clinical-cytological grading (CCG). The current study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of the different CCG and phenotypes in CRSwNP outpatients examined in clinical practice. This retrospective cross-sectional study enrolled 791 consecutive CRSwNP outpatients (424 males, mean age 48.8 years). In the total population, asthma was a common comorbidity (30.8%) as well as aspirin intolerance (24.8%), and allergy (50.8%). As concerns CCG-grading, 210 (26.5%) outpatients had low-grade, 366 (46.3%) medium, and 215 (27.2%) high. As regards cytological phenotypes, 87 (11%) had neutrophilic type, 371 (46.3%) eosinophilic, 112 (14.2%) mast cell, and 221 (27.9%) mixed. High-grade CCG was significantly associated with more frequent asthma, aspirin intolerance, allergy, recurrent surgery, and mixed cytological phenotype. Low-grade CCG was characterized by fewer comorbidities and operations, and neutrophilic phenotype. Therefore, the present study confirmed that CCG is a useful tool in the management of outpatients with CRSwNP. CRSwNP is frequently associated with asthma, aspirin intolerance, and allergy comorbidity. High-grade CCG is frequently characterized by a mixed cytological phenotype, thus, by more severe progress. These real-world outcomes underline that CRSwNP deserves adequate attention for careful management and optimal identification of the best-tailored therapy; CCG and cytological phenotyping could be fruitful tools in clinical practice. Asthma and aspirin intolerance should be adequately investigated in all CRS patients.
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