Causes of hospitalization and characteristics of Algerian chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in Tizi-Ouzou: a retrospective study
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive chronic inflammatory disease and the third cause of death worldwide in 2016. COPD epidemiology is well documented in high-income countries where the disease is well managed. However, the disease is neglected in low-income countries and there is lack of data. Our study aims to identify COPD patients’ characteristics and hospital admission causes, and to determine disease etiologies and associated factors. A retrospective study was conducted in COPD Algerian patients using medical record data collected from January 2007 to May 2017 at the pulmonology department of the Belloua Hospital of Tizi-Ouzou city. Out of 133 hospital admissions for COPD during the study period, only 120 records were found and analyzed. Most of the admitted patients were men (96%) and the mean age was 74.29±9.56 years. Among them, 78.7% were in the GOLD stage III or IV and 9 deaths (7.5%) were recorded during the study period. Interestingly, disease severity is associated with increasing age of the patients and mortality (p=0.01 and p=0.02, respectively). Risk factors include cigarette smoking (93%), history of medical conditions (36.66%) with the most prevalent conditions being emphysema (38.63%) and asthma (27.27%), the cold season (47%), and occupational exposures (58%). Most of the admissions (64.16%) were due to acute dyspnea and 21.66 % to respiratory infections, however, 34.16 % of patients were readmitted at least one time. Comorbidities were observed in 57.5% of the patients, including cardiovascular diseases (63.76%) and diabetes (18.84%). These results show that COPD severity is associated with age and mortality. Better understanding of the COPD etiologies and the causes of hospital admission will lead to more effective management of the disease.
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