Role of a multidisciplinary program in improving outcomes in cognitively impaired heart failure older patients
AbstractBackground: Cognitive impairment (CI) frequently complicates Heart failure (HF) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Previous studies reported that nurse-lead home-based multidisciplinary program (MP) may not improve the prognosis of this high-risk group. In the present study, we analysed the relative effectiveness of an integrated hospital-based MP in patients with cognitive impairment. Methods: Consecutive (n=173) community-living outpatients aged >70 years (mean 77+6, 48% women) randomized to a MP (n=86) or usual care (UC) (n=87) were enrolled in stable clinical conditions. Cognitive status was assessed by means of Folstein Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results: CI (MMSE<24) was present in 41.6% (42,5% UC vs 40.7% MP p=ns). The variables independently associated to CI were: older age, education level <5 years, anemia and severe renal dysfunction. During a 2-year follow-up, 59 patients died (31.4%) with no significant difference between intervention group. At multivariate analysis, in the entire cohort, CI was independently associated to death (HR 2,077[95%CI 1,097- 3,931]), HF admissions (2,133[1,346-3,381]), death/HF admissions (1,784[1,132-2,811]) and all-cause admissions (1,473[1,008-2,153]. When considered according to intervention groups, CI was independently associated to all-cause death (3,603 [1,553-8,358], death/HF admissions (2,029[1,200-3,432]) and HF admissions (2,474[1,406-4,353]) but not to all-cause admissions. The assignment of patients with CI to MP was associated to a significant reduction in HF admissions vs UC (0,503[0,253-0,999] (all interaction tests p=ns). Conclusions: This study suggests that CI is very common and associated to worse prognosis in heart failure and that hospital-based MP seems to improve outcomes in these patients through reduction of heart failure hospital admission.
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