Modulation of insulin resistance by renin angiotensin system inhibitors: implications for cardiovascular prevention

https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2021.1602

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Abstract

Insulin resistance (IR) and the related hyperinsulinamia play a key role in the genesis and progression of the continuum of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Thus, it is reasonable to pursue in primary and secondary CV prevention, the pharmacological strategies that are capable to interfere with the development of IR. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of IR. In particular, angiotensin II (Ang II) through the generation of reactive oxygen species, induces a low grade of inflammation, which impairs the insulin signal transduction. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are effective not only as blood pressure-lowering agents, but also as modulators of metabolic abnormalities. Indeed, experimental evidence indicates that in animal models of IR, ACE inhibitors are capable to ameliorate the insulin sensitivity. The Ang II receptor blockers (ARBs) modulate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activity. PPAR–γ is a transcription factor that controls the gene expression of several key enzymes of glucose metabolism. A further mechanism that accounts for the favorable metabolic properties of ARBs is the capability to modulate the hypothalamic–pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The available clinical evidence is consistent with the concept that both ACE inhibitors and ARBs are able to interfere with the development of IR and its consequences like type 2 diabetes. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of the RAAS has favourable effects on dyslipidaemias, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Therefore, the pharmacological antagonism of the RAAS, nowadays, represents the first choice in the prevention of cardio-metabolic diseases.

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2021-03-11
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Cardiology - Reviews
Keywords:
ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers, Type 2 diabetes, Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Atherosclerosis, Vascular inflammation
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How to Cite
Valente, Valeria, Raffaele Izzo, Maria Virginia Manzi, Maria Rosaria De Luca, Emanuele Barbato, and Carmine Morisco. 2021. “Modulation of Insulin Resistance by Renin Angiotensin System Inhibitors: Implications for Cardiovascular Prevention”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 91 (2). https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2021.1602.

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