Cockroach exposure and its allergy sensitization in asthma patients
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with distinct phenotypes. Serum tIgE, SSIgE and SPT are the methods of evaluating allergen sensitization. The present study evaluates the exposure and sensitization to cockroach (Periplaneta americana) antigens in asthma patients in a metropolitan city of India. The study enrolled 200 consecutive bronchial asthma patients, diagnosed as per GINA guidelines. As per history of exposure to cockroaches, the patients are divided in two groups as exposed and non-exposed asthmatic. All the enrolled subjects underwent SPT against common aeroallergens including cockroach, spirometry and estimation of tIgE level and SSIgE against cockroach. Out of 200 asthma patients, a total of 114 (57%) asthmatic were found SPT positive against one of the common aeroallergens, of which 68 (34%) showed SPT sensitivity against cockroach. A total of 103 (51.5%) patients were found exposed to cockroaches. In the cockroach exposed group, the mean serum tIgE was found significantly higher than the non-exposed group (569.31±224.64 vs 479.29±237 IU/ml; p=0.007). The mean SSIgE against cockroach in exposed groups was found not significant than non-expose group (4.87±11.19 vs 4.11±8.39 KUA/L; p=0.589). The mean tIgE was also not significant in atopic compared to non-atopic asthmatic (553.25±218.12 IU/ml vs 489.1±251.16 IU/ml; p=0.056). The mean SSIgE against cockroach was 5.66±10.45 KUA/L for atopic and 2.96±8.98 KUA/L for non-atopic (p=0.054). The airway obstruction was almost the same in both groups. Asthmatic patients who were exposed to cockroach and atopic had high tIgE, SSIgE levels and SPT positivity against cockroach antigen compared to non-exposed patients.
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