Type D personality impairs Quality of Life, coping and short-term psychological outcome in patients attending an outpatient intensive program of cardiac rehabilitation
AbstractBackground: Type D personality represents a risk factor for adverse outcome and impaired Quality of Life (QoL) in CHD patients. Only few studies investigated Type D patients following cardiac rehabilitation (CR). No study investigated Type D personality in Italian patients attending a CR program of 4 weeks. The aims of the study were a) to verify the presence of Type D personality among patients attending an Italian CR program; b) to investigate psychological health status, QoL and coping style of CR patients and c) to test the influence of Type D personality on CR patients outcome. Methods: Data from 59 patients attending an outpatient intensive program of 4 weeks of CR were collected at admission, and 1 month after discharge, using a set of self-report questionnaires. Variables were measured using CBAH, DS-14, Q-LES-Q and Brief COPE Scale. Results: The percentage of Type D personality found in the study sample was 39%. At admission Type D patients showed a significant lower level of psychological health status and QoL satisfaction compared to non Type D patients (p<0.05). After CR a significant percentage of Type D patients, despite an overall improvement, continued to show a clinically relevant psychological impairment in terms of anxiety (p=0.003), depressive mood (p=0.001), impairment in psychophysical well-being (p=0.002), perceived psychophysical stress (p=0.002), interpersonal difficulties (p<0.001), and social anxiety (p=0.045). Type D personality was also found to be associated with a significant greater use of maladaptive coping strategies (p<0.05). Conclusions: Type D personality played a significant clinically relevant role on psychological health outcome in CR. Type D personality patients reported a significant higher level of psychological impairment, in terms of anxiety, depressive mood, impairment in psychophysical wellbeing, perceived psychophysical stress, interpersonal difficulties, social anxiety, and a significant lower QoL, prior and after CR. Type D personality seemed also to be associated with maladaptive coping strategies. Importance of assessment for Type D personality is warranted in CR setting, as additional interventions seem required to enhance the outcome of these patients defined in letterature at high-risk.
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