Left ventricular systolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: from asymptomatic changes in geometry and function to overt heart failure
AbstractA bidirectional relationship between kidney and heart function is present in all stages of cardiac and renal disease, from the asymptomatic phase of left ventricular systolic dysfunction to overt heart failure, as well as from the initial reduction of glomerular filtration rate to end-stage kidney disease, respectively. The simultaneous presence of both diseases has a significant impact on prognosis and requires specific therapeutic strategies. The early recognition of abnormalities of renal and myocardial function may have a relevant influence on management of combination of these conditions.
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