The Italian Survey on Cardiac Rehabilitation - 2008 (ISYDE-2008). Part 3. National availability and organization of cardiac rehabilitation facilities. Official report of the Italian Association for Cardiovascular Prevention, Rehabilitation and Epidemiolog


  • Roberto Tramarin | Divisione di Cardiologia Riabilitativa, Fondazione Europea di Ricerca Biomedica - Onlus, Cernusco S/N (MI), Italy.
  • Marco Ambrosetti U.O. di Cardiologia e Angiologia Riabilitativa, Clinica “Le Terrazze”, Cunardo (VA), Italy.
  • Stefania De Feo U.O. di Cardiologia, Casa di Cura Polispecialistica “Dr. Pederzoli”, Peschiera del Garda (VR), Italy.
  • Massimo Piepoli U.O. di Cardiologia, Ospedale G. da Saliceto, Piacenza, Italy.
  • Carmine Riccio Dipartimento di Cardiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera di Caserta, Caserta, Italy.
  • Raffaele Griffo U.O. di Cardiologia Riabilitativa, Ospedale “La Colletta”, Arenzano (GE), Italy.


From January 28th to February 10th 2008, the Italian Association for Cardiovascular Prevention, Rehabilitation and Epidemiology (IACPR-GICR) conducted the ISYDE- 2008 study, the primary aim of which was to take a detailed snapshot of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) provision in Italy – in terms of number and distribution of facilities, staffing levels, organization and setting – and compare the actual CR provision with the recommendations of national guidelines for CR and secondary prevention. The secondary aim was to describe the patient population currently being referred to CR and the components of the programs offered. Out of 190 cardiac rehabilitation centers existing in Italy in 2008, 165 (87%) took part in the study. On a national basis, there is one CR unit every 299,977 inhabitants: in northern Italy there is one CR unit every 263,578 inhabitants, while in central and southern Italy there is one every 384,034 and 434,170 inhabitants, respectively. The majority of CR units are located in public hospitals (59%), the remainder in privately owned health care organizations (41%). Fifty-nine percent are located in hospitals providing both acute and rehabilitation care, 32% are in specifically dedicated rehabilitation structures, while 8% operate in the context of residential long term care for chronic conditions. Almost three-quarters of CR units currently operating are linked to dedicated cardiology divisions (74%), 5% are linked to physical medicine and rehabilitation divisions, 2% to internal medicine, and 19% to cardiac surgery and other divisions. Inhospital care is provided by 62.4% of the centers; outpatient care is provided on a day-hospital basis by 10.9% of facilities and on an ambulatory basis by 20%. The CR units are led in 86% of cases by a cardiologist and in only 14% of cases by specialists in internal medicine, geriatrics, physical medicine and rehabilitation, pneumology or other disciplines. In terms of staffing, each cardiac rehabilitation unit has 4.0±2.7 dedicated physicians (range 1-16, mode 2), 10.1±8.0 nurses, 3.3±2.5 physiotherapists (range 0 – 20; 16% of services have no physiotherapist in the rehabilitation team), 1.5±0.8 psychologists, and a dietitian (present in 62% of CR units). Phase II CR programs are available in 67.9% of cases in residential (inpatient) and in 30.9% of cases in outpatient (day-hospital and ambulatory) settings. Phase III programs are offered by 56.4% of the centers in ambulatory outpatient regime, and on an at home basis by 4.8% with telecare supervision, 7.3% without. Long term secondary prevention follow up programs are provided by 42.4% of CR services.



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cardiac rehabilitation, organization, staffing, program, provision
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How to Cite
Tramarin, Roberto, Marco Ambrosetti, Stefania De Feo, Massimo Piepoli, Carmine Riccio, and Raffaele Griffo. 2016. “The Italian Survey on Cardiac Rehabilitation - 2008 (ISYDE-2008). Part 3. National Availability and Organization of Cardiac Rehabilitation Facilities. Official Report of the Italian Association for Cardiovascular Prevention, Rehabilitation and Epidemiolog”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 70 (4).

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