Smoking characteristics and cessation in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans
AbstractAim. Describe the smoking characteristics and the results of a smoking intervention programme involving 27 cigarette smokers with Thromboangiitis Obliterans (TAO). Methods. Clinical records of all cigarette smokers with TAO that attended our smoking treatment clinic from 1990 to 2004 were reviewed. Demographic and smoking characteristics, the type of smoking treatment received and its efficacy and safety up to 12 months was abstracted. Treatment consisted of the combination of behavioural and pharmacological treatment. The behavioural treatment was delivered in eight individual visits: one baseline visit and seven follow-up visits. Pharmacological treatment consisted of combinations of nicotine patches and nicotine gum (NRT) and/or bupropion. This is anâ€˜intent to treatâ€™ analysis. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. Qualitative variable relationships were tested using the Ï‡-square test for independence, or Fisherâ€™s Exact Test when expected values were less than five. Statistical significance was accepted at a level of p<0.05. Results. 27 cigarette smokers (23 male and 4 female), mean (SD) age 36.07 (7.23), mean FTND-score 8.4 (1.4), smoked a mean of 29.6 (7.71) cigarettes daily. They attended our clinic a mean of 45.48 (8.63) months after onset of TAO. Their mean number of attempts to stop was 3.22 (2.75). The continuous abstinence rate decreased from 29% at the end of treatment to 18.5% at 12-month follow up. The seven day point prevalence abstinence rate at the 12th month of follow up was 40.7%. We found that continuous abstinence at 6 and 12 months was more frequent among those with multiple previous stop attempts (p=0.003 and p=0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences in abstinence outcomes between groups. Incidence of adverse effects was similar to other smokers seeking treatment. All the smokers who achieved continuous tobacco abstinence had improvement in their disease and none of them underwent amputation, compared to 50% of those who resumed smoking and later required an amputation. Conclusions. Continuous abstinence rates among treated cigarette smokers with TAO are relatively low, but abstinence does improve symptoms and reduce the likelihood of amputation. More aggressive treatment programmes need to be developed for this high risk, highly tobacco dependent population.
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