Inspiratory muscle workload due to dynamic intrinsic PEEP in stable COPD patients: effects of two different settings of non-invasive pressure-support ventilation
AbstractBackground: In severe stable hypercapnic COPD patients the amount of pressure time product (PTP) spent to counterbalance their dynamic intrinsic positive end expiratory pressure (PEEPi,dyn) is high: no data are available on the best setting of non invasive pressure support ventilation (NPSV) to reduce the inspiratory muscle workload due to PEEPi,dyn. Methods: The objectives of this randomised controlled physiological study were: 1. To measure the inspiratory muscle workload due to PEEPi,dyn 2. To measure the effects on this parameter of two settings of NPSV in stable COPD patients with chronic hypercapnia admitted in a Pulmonary Division of two Rehabilitation Centers. Twenty- three stable COPD patients with chronic hypercapnia on domiciliary nocturnal NPSV for 30Â±20 months were submitted to an evaluation of breathing pattern, PEEPi,dyn, inspiratory muscle workload and its partitioning during both assisted and unassisted ventilation. Two settings of NPSV were randomly applied for 30 minutes each: i- â€œat patientâ€™s comfortâ€ (C): Inspiratory pressure support (IPS) was the maximal tolerated pressure able to reduce awake PaCO2 with the addition of a pre-set level of external PEEP (PEEPe); ii- â€œphysiological settingâ€ (PH): the level of IPS able to achieve a > 40% and < 90% decrease in transdiaphragmatic pressure in comparison to spontaneous breathing (SB). A PEEPe level able to reduce PEEPi,dyn by at least 50% was added. Results: During SB the tidal diaphragmatic pressuretime product (PTPdi/b) was 17.62Â±7.22 cmH2O*sec, the component due to PEEPi,dyn (PTPdiPEEPi,dyn) being 38 Â± 17% (range: 16-65%). Compared to SB, PTPdiPEEPi,dyn was reduced significantly with both settings, the reduction being greater with PH compared to C. Conclusions: In conclusion in severe COPD patients with chronic hypercapnia the inspiratory muscle workload due to PEEPidyn is high and is reduced by NPSV at a greater extent when ventilator setting is tailored to patientâ€™s mechanics.
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