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The presence of increased air bubble in the lumina of esophagus on a chest CT scan may be associated with esophageal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the appearance of air bubbles on chest CT scan and gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). In this case-control study, thirty-two patients with endoscopically proved GERD and 32 subjects without GERD underwent chest computed tomography (CT) scanning. Esophageal dilatation (ED) was defined as the presence of air bubbles greater than 10 mm in the supra ventricle (SV) and ventricle (CV), and air bubbles >15 mm in the ventricle to the lower esophageal sphincter (V-LES). The results were compared between the two groups. The GERD patients included 16 (50%) males with a mean age of 58.5±11.2 years and the control group included 17 (54.8%) males and 14 (45.1%) females with a mean age of 66.7±10.5 years. There was a significant relationship between the presence of GERD and esophageal dilation (ED) in the V-LES sections on the CT scan (P=0.002). The mean size of the air bubbles in the V-LES section was 11.73 mm in the case group in comparison to 4.32 mm in the control group (P<0.001). The size and location of the air bubbles in the esophagus can vary and be important. The possibility of GERD increases in the presence of esophageal dilation on CT scan.