The impairment of the Growth Hormone/Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis in heart failure: A possible target for future therapy

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Lucrezia Piccioli
Michele Arcopinto
Andrea Salzano
Roberta D'Assante
Alessandra Schiavo
Francesca M. Stagnaro
Anna Lombardi
Veronica Panicara
Pietro Valente
Giuseppe Vitale
Filippo M. Sarullo
Francesco Giallauria
Alberto M. Marra *
(*) Corresponding Author:
Alberto M. Marra |


Hormonal abnormalities are quite common in chronic heart failure (CHF). The most studied hormonal axis in CHF is the impairment of Growth Hormone (GH)/Insulin Growth Factor-1(IGF-1), which in turn is defined either by a blunted response to GH stimulation test or low serum IGF-1 values.  Several independent groups reported that the presence of an abnormal GH/IGF-1 status in CHF is associated with a more severe disease, impaired functional capacity and reduced Survival rates. After the first encouraging results, double -blind controlled trials showed a neutral effect of the GH administration in patients. However, further studies reported positive results, when a GH-therapy is implemented only in those patients presenting a GH deficiency (replacement therapy).

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